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Although mutations conferring drug resistance were present in all lineages, the proportion of resistant and susceptible isolates varied between lineages. Characteristic features of the four major lineages of Mycobacterium tuberculosis with respect to M. Genotypic analysis of phenotypically resistant isolates showed that among isoniazid-resistant isolates, the resistance-conferring mutation kat G A 944 C was positively associated with lineage III (odds ratio [OR] 2.44, p = 0.016) and the inh A C –15 T promoter mutation positively associated with lineage IV (OR 3.28, p = 0.006). Evolutionary trees from DNA sequences: a maximum likelihood approach. The NS5/3′NCR sequences contained 148 variable sites, of which 89 were informative. Current situation of yellow fever in Latin America. As for spacer YP8, Antiqua and Medievalis isolates exhibited a full-length 236-bp spacer, whereas Orientalis isolates had an 18-bp deletion at position 36 of the spacer. The mean incidence, based on A *Eastern South Limburg Municipal Public Health Service, Heerlen, the Netherlands; †National Institute of Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven, the Netherlands; and ‡Netherlands Reference Laboratory for Bacterial Meningitis, Amsterdam, the Netherlands reports of ≈3.4 per 100,000 per year, is comparable to that in England and Wales (3.7) (3) but three times higher than in the United States (1.1) (4).
In contrast, an intergenic SNP, oxy R-ahp C G -46 A (37), associated with, but not proven to cause, isoniazid resistance, occurred exclusively in lineage III and was present in all isolates within the lineage, which implies that this SNP may have arisen under neutral selection. Rifampicin resistance was not associated with any lineage. In addition to the sequence data generated in this study, partial or complete 3′NCR sequences were available for an additional 25 Brazilian YFV isolates (13,14), which yielded the full dataset of 79 YFV strains from 12 states (alignment length, 576 nt). At position 126 in the spacer, strains 643 and 695 exhibited a 56-bp deletion; at position 133, strains 304, 1092, 507 and 571 exhibited a 49-bp deletion; at position 140, strains 611, 685, and 537 exhibited a 42-bp deletion; at position 142, strains 616, 548, 565, 518, 520, 560, 561, and 670 exhibited a 35-bp deletion; at position 149, strains 519, 542, 566, 564, and 1513 exhibited a 28-bp deletion; at position 155, strains 552, 613, 772, and 989 exhibited a 21-bp deletion; at position 162, strains 550, 677, and 1594 exhibited a 14-bp deletion; and at position 169 in the spacer, strains 544, 553, and 545 exhibited a 7-bp deletion. Electronic interpretation of chest radiograph reports to detect central venous catheters. From 1993 to 2001, the number of reported cases was from 422 to 770 per year; the peak occurred in 2001 as a result of an increase in serogroup C meningococcal cases.
tuberculosis with respect to patient country or continent of birth. Variation within the Dominant Subclade Genetic variation within the dominant subclade of Brazilian YFV strains showed a complex pattern of relationships that demonstrated both geographic and temporal associations. Brazilian NS5/3'NCR phylogeny (576 nt) based on yellow fever isolates (neighbor-joining tree, Kimura 2-parameter distance correction, midpoint rooted). 1: North (AC, Acre; AM, Amazonas; AP, Amapá; PA, Pará; RO, Rondônia; RR, Roraima; TO, Tocantins). MST of Ancient Dental Pulp Specimens In the 46 PCR experiments we performed on ancient tooth samples, we obtained 10 Y. In a real cluster, cases of the same strain occur in temporal and spatial proximity at a higher frequency than by chance. meningitidis isolates collected by the Netherlands Reference Laboratory for Bacterial Meningitis in the same period.
tuberculosis on the basis of neutral genetic variation, we annotated the tree with the ns SNPs. Frothingham R, Strickland PL, Bretzel G, Ramaswamy S, Musser JM, Williams DL. The PAUP* program (16) was used to infer phylogenetic trees by the neighbor-joining method with Kimura 2-parameter distance corrections. For spacer YP5, Medievalis isolates exhibited a full-length 292-bp spacer, whereas Antiqua and Orientalis isolates exhibited a 32-bp deletion at position 101 of the spacer. Automatic electronic laboratory-based reporting of notifiable infectious diseases at a large health system. The apparently sporadic occurrence of invasive disease reflects invisible transmission chains of circulating strains, since invasive disease develops in only a small proportion of those infected.
Three of the low copy number clusters, each characterized by a single IS6110 band and distinct spoligotype pattern, were subdivided by SST, whereas among high copy number clusters, all isolates within a cluster possessed the same SST. PCR products were screened by agarose gel electrophoresis. We used the Primer3 program ( primer3_ to determine the primer sequences specific for the genomic segments of interest (12). pestis CO92 that exhibited large sequence differences with the homologous Y. When both genes flanking the intergenic sequence exhibited best-matches with the BLAST score 120 bits, we estimated the length of the corresponding intergenic sequence in the Y. We then aligned the homologous intergenic sequences (8 x 106 combinations (223 molecular events). n outbreak of invasive meningococcal disease is a public health emergency because of the disease’s unpredictability, sudden lethality, and serious sequelae.
A new, small-animal model of severe orthopoxvirus infection (monkeypox) is described. Isolate clusters were present in all lineages, but isolates with low copy number were confined to lineage II and IV. Phylogenetic Analysis Supernatants of YFV-infected Vero cells were obtained, and viral RNA was extracted by using a commercial kit (Qiagen, Valencia, CA) and processed according to the manufacturer’s instructions. The genomic-sense degenerate primer EMF (5′ TGGATGACSACKGARGAYAT) and genomic-complementary primer VD8 (5′ GGGTCTCCTCTAACCTCTAG) were used for reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction amplification of a 595-bp fragment comprising 255 nucleotides of NS5 and 340 nucleotides of 3′NCR (14,15). NC-004088) (5), which were obtained from the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database (11). pestis CO92 intergenic sequences of 50 to 300 bp and carried out BLASTN searches to identify the homologous intergenic 1586 sequences in Y. pestis CO92 genes flanking the intergenic sequences as queries (13). Monitoring hospitalacquired infections to promote patient safety—United States, 1990–1999. Clustering beyond chance only occurred among the closest neighboring cases (comparable to secondary cases) and was small (3.1%, 95% confidence interval 2.1%–4.1%).
Polymorphisms and Antimicrobial Drug Resistance to Lineage Having demonstrated a robust phylogeny for M. Sequence editing and alignments were performed with Vector NTI (Informax, Frederick, MD), and additional manual editing of alignments was performed with the GCG Wisconsin Package Version 10.3 (Accelrys, San Diego, CA). For spacer YP3, we observed five alleles: Orientalis isolates 1513 and 695 exhibited a complete, 340-bp sequence, and the other Orientalis isolates exhibited a 16-bp deletion; Medievalis isolates featured a 48-bp deletion and a mutation G → A at position 135 of the spacer; Antiqua isolates exhibited a 32-bp deletion except for isolate 611, which had a 16-bp deletion and mutations C164 → T, C166 → T and A191 → G. As for spacer YP4, Medievalis isolates were characterized by a 36-bp deletion, whereas Antiqua and Orientalis isolates exhibited a complete spacer. Panackal AA, M’ikanatha NM, Tsui FC, Mc Mahon J, Wagner MM, Dixon BW, et al. Statewide system of electronic notifiable disease reporting from clinical laboratories: comparing automated reporting with conventional methods. Most persons, when colonized with Neisseria meningitidis, become asymptomatic carriers and are sources for further transmission.
To prevent introducing a selection bias, no correction was made for strain transmission. Bands were recovered with a gel extraction kit (Qiagen) and directly sequenced with an ABI automatic sequencer at the University of Texas Medical Branch protein chemistry core facility. The 387-bp spacer YP1 exhibited a 183-bp deletion specific for the Medievalis isolates. Effler P, Ching-Lee M, Bogard A, Ieong MC, Nekomoto T, Jernigan D. Although risk factors are known, the reasons for developing invasive disease are not fully understood.
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Mc Dade, Rome, Georgia, USA Managing Senior Editor Polyxeni Potter, Atlanta, Georgia, USA Associate Editors Charles Ben Beard, Ft. Frederick Sparling, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA Jan Svoboda, Prague, Czech Republic Bala Swaminathan, Atlanta, Georgia, USA Robert Swanepoel, Johannesburg, South Africa Phillip Tarr, Seattle, Washington, USA Timothy Tucker, Cape Town, South Africa Elaine Tuomanen, Memphis, Tennessee, USA Mary E. Each of the lineages defined here can be defined on the basis of a Table 4. The population is not globally representative; for example, few patients originated from the Americas. tuberculosis is an obligate human pathogen, with a delay between initial infection and the development of clinical disease (often up to 5 years) and long periods of latency between disease control and subsequent clinical reactivation. tuberculosis are by definition associated with the activities of its human host. Sreevatsan S, Pan X, Stockbauer KE, Connell ND, Kreiswirth BN, Whittam TS, et al. Although most strains in group 1B were identified in western and central regions (over a distance as large as 3,500 km2), one isolate identified in this cluster was from the northeast region in 1580 Barra do Corda, Maranhão (Brazil93a). Since some of these positive blood cultures were caused by secondary bloodstream infections, these delays did not adversely affect the performance of the final algorithm, which incorporated additional rules. A general methodology for the analysis of experiments with repeated measures of categorical data. Record Linkage Records between these two sources were linked (case ascertainment) by using SAS version 8.1 (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC).